The presentation tools allow students to combine various skills in order to review their learning. The teacher models the strategy and then the students work in small groups to predict, clarify, question, and summarize the text. Good readers are able to use strategies. This is a technique in which students become the instructors and teach the class. Within the reciprocal teaching process, students are taught a variety of reading strategies for clarification such as rereading, using decoding skills, and looking within the sentence to extract meaning. Incorporating Graphic Organizers Graphic organizers are very useful thought-collecting tools whether students have just been introduced to reciprocal teaching, or are inexperienced novices. Reciprocal Teaching Manipulatives and Supports Visual, verbal, and hands-on tools may be utilized while engaging in each of the components of reciprocal reading.
Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Graphic organizers are best when they match the text they are being used with. For example, some students may not know what to clarify means. How will you know students understand what you are teaching? Writing: organizing and synthesizing information The encourages the use of written assignments across the campus because is teaches students to communicate information, to clarify thinking and to learn new concepts and information. Finally, props such as puppets, costumes, or objects are considered hands-on motivating tools for use throughout the reciprocal teaching process, especially in the younger grades. Students apply knowledge gained from the first part of this lesson to search our classroom library for stories that depict first person point of view.
Its simplicity provides instructors with an easy entry into cooperative learning and it is readily adaptable to a wide range of course constructs. I ask students to share their and discuss text evidence that supports that this book is written from the first person point of view. The various activities can be modified to fit most content areas. I distribute the book, Because of Winn Dixie, and students are paired to analyze the book for evidence of first person point of view. What is great about this activity is that it can be used in any content area, as we want our students to be able to read and comprehend various types of text. They also provides students space to collect the thoughts of their group members during the all group share time following the reading portion of the activity.
I want all kids to succeed in reading by helping their teachers use simple and effective research-based reading methods. According to Hattie 2009 , reciprocal teaching is among the most powerful instructional practices in terms of achievement outcomes for students with disabilities due to its combination of strategy and direct instruction methods. It provides articles on the strategy, posters, graphic organizers, and other charts to help implement this strategy effectively. Visualize Draw a picture or describe the picture that you see in your mind. Graphic Organizer Layout Ideas Creating a graphic organizer to be used with the reciprocal teaching strategy is as simple as folding a piece of paper.
Cooperative learning techniques can be loosely categorized by the skill that each enhances Barkley, Cross and Major, 2005 , although it is important to recognize that many cooperative learning exercises can be developed to fit within multiple categories. The benefits of using graphic organizers or concept mapping has been seen in a wide range of practices. This means that each member of the group will have an opportunity to practice each skill as they rotate from student to student. In many cases I end up incorporating student-designed activities, games, and web tools into classroom lessons. The best way to ensure that a reader learns to use a strategy is first, one at a time and then, combining strategies into multiple strategy lessons. The teacher models and facilitates the learning. This aspect of the lesson allows students to take ownership of their learning.
The reciprocal teaching manipulatives and supports listed below are examples of teaching and learning tools that will assist students in more independently applying its components. Students are placed in groups of four and I allow them to choose their role from the ones listed on their lesson template. Preparing the Lessons After I have defined the different aspects of lesson development, I then put students into groups. How Does Reciprocal Teaching Work? We also watch a Through reciprocal teaching, a student reviews the characteristics of first person point of view, as shown in this Because my students are high level readers, I decided that it is important they know how to distinguish Points of View. Reading comprehension instruction is beneficial for all students, especially those with learning disabilities. In this structure, students periodically take a break from their work often at key decision making points and send one group member to another group to describe their progress. Ask questions using the words what, when, where, why, and how.
I like the online progress chart students fill out as they complete the review. They will have their notes to refer to, they will have reviewed confusing words or ideas in an effort to better understand and communicate, and they will practice putting this new material into their own words in an effort to process this new information individually. Critical Components of Reciprocal Teaching As noted previously, reciprocal teaching engages students in reading and has been shown to increase comprehension through four basic components: predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing. As they design their lesson students practice important skills. Graphic Organizers Graphic organizers are exactly what they say, they are graphic representations that organize our thinking and keep track of information found within the text. Unfortunately, that doesn't always happen as we would hope like.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40 3 , 210-225. Think about the pictures, headings, and graphs. The role of the group is to gain information and alternative perspectives by listening and sharing. So, I again stressed that the voice of the narrator over-rides the pronouns used. Recalling important information and concepts within a text can increase metacognition Stricklin, 2011. Hands-on reciprocal teaching: A comprehension technique. You can also get decorative with your graphic organizers, including images that directly relate to each of the four skills.