We then use these lenses to articulate six practical strategies to aid designers in developing play that supports hospitalized children. Johns University, Georgetown, Emory, the University of Montana, and University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. The data for an interactional analysis of humor can not be limited to joke texts in books. Moreover, jab lines included in the set up of narrative jokes may actually help the audience pass gradually from the bona-fide to the non-bona-fide mode of communication. Howard Carter presents and analyzes humor inside and outside of the hospital. This article presents the state of the art of research into humor in interaction, beginning with approaches to humor in pragmatics and with relation to theorizing on politeness and gender in the second half of the 20th century, when the increasing availability of real data and transcription methods along with the rise of Conversation Analysis and interactional sociolinguistics made possible the detailed investigation of joking and joke-telling in everyday conversation. Much humor research has been based, so far, on the implicit assumption that the punch line is the only humorous element in a joke.
Humor is a prevalent feature in many forms of interaction. Humor is an important, ubiquitous phenomenon; however, seemingly disparate conditions seem to facilitate humor. The meta-analysis revealed the unique aspects of hospital clowns' work with respect to: a a quality of care that transcends boundaries, that is, a magical safe area where demands and adjustment were temporarily set aside and where the lighter side of life took precedence; b a non-demanding quality of care, where joy could be experienced without requiring something in return, where the child's terms mattered and where the child perspective was clearly in focus; and c a defusing quality of care, which is expressed as a positive counterweight that was otherwise lacking in medical care, where the hospital clowns used different solutions that bypassed regular hospital routines by temporarily distracting and making things easier for the children, parents, and staff in various care situations. Howard Carter presents and analyzes humor inside and outside of the hospital. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
Why do patients often initiate humor with healthcare workers? The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. In this transitional area, the hospital clowns' unique contribution can be interpreted, in psychological terms, as being available as a vicarious therapeutic clown figure in a magical world that parallels reality. The theory is an extension and revision of Raskin's script-based semantic theory of humor and of Attardo's five-level joke representation model. He argues that rituals of comedy affirm our humanity, aid healing, and should be routinely part of medical care. Joyful and serious intentions in the work of hospital clowns: A meta-analysis based on a 7-year research project conducted in three parts. A Howard Carter Title: and his based on his book of the same name.
A pilot study on mood and behavior. Furthermore, a comparison of the script opposition of the punch line with the one s found in the jab line s of the same narrative joke reveals that the script opposition introduced in the punch line is always new, i. The proposed hierarchy enables the concepts of joke variants and invariants, introduced previously by Attardo, to be firmed up, generalized, and augmented into a full-fledged taxonomy indexed with regard to the shared knowledge resource values for example, two jokes may be variants on, that is, sharing, the same script oppositions and logical mechanisms. Because humor frees our imaginations and gives us pleasure, it provides a humane context for maintaining health when we are well and for healing when we are sick. Humor, he finds, helps us deal with difficult subjects, creates social bonds, and affirms positive values. Therefore, it seems that humor may be spread all over the joke-text and it is not necessarily restricted to its punch line.
His books include Clowns and Jokers Can Heal Us: Comedy and Medicine;First Cut: A Season in the Human Anatomy Lab; Our Human Hearts: A Medical and Cultural Journey, and, co-authored, Rising from the Flames: The Experience of the Severely Burned. Five experimental studies show that benign moral violations tend to elicit laughter and amusement in addition to disgust. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 8, 1748—2623. Banter, teasing, irony and sarcasm frequently surface in everyday talk, and conversationalists often engage in telling funny stories if not outright joke-telling. We investigated three conditions that make a violation benign and thus humorous: a the presence of an alternative norm suggesting that the situation is acceptable, b weak commitment to the violated norm, and c psychological distance from the violation. He argues that rituals of comedy affirm our humanity, aid healing, and should be routinely part of medical care. We seek to engage the children with the hospital experience through play that utilizes the hospital environment and materials.
Carter argues that comedy can be a form of preventive medicine and should routinely be an adjunct to medical care. We present findings from two hospital play workshops with 23 children with severe diseases. We tested the benign-violation hypothesis in the domain of moral psychology, where there is a strong documented association between moral violations and negative emotions, particularly disgust. Why do patients often initiate humor with healthcare workers? Ultimately, our work extends our understanding of how play can be designed as a form of complementary care. The analysis of the corpus used for the present study shows that more than 70 percent of the narrative jokes examined include humorous elements in the form of one or more jab lines in the set up of the joke before its punch line.
A belief shared among all contributors is that being cured of a disease is not the same thing as being healed, and that writing poetry and prose brings us to a place of healing. Prior work around digital play is mostly focusing on distracting the child from the hospital experience. It demonstrates the current state of research based on a few characteristic samples of data and analyses. The aim of the meta-analysis, which is based on the project's three studies, was to attempt to achieve a deeper psychological and more nuanced understanding of the unique encounters taking place between the hospital clowns and ailing children in the study. A ritual of black humor in the emergency room and one forty-year-old joke -- From comforting clowns to ironic jokers : the many kinds and purposes of comedy -- Talking past taboo : when language mentions the unmentionable -- Imagine that! In contrast, we propose an alternative approach.
Such an interactional theory of humor goes beyond a purely pragmatic description of jokes and joking. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content. This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Why do we tell jokes about dcotors and hospitals? Because humor frees our imaginations and gives us pleasure, it provides a humane context for maintaining health when we are well and for healing when we are sick. The resulting general theory of verbal humor is discussed in the light of its relations with various academic disciplines and areas of research as well as with the script-based semantic theory of humor, special theories of humor, and incongruity-based theories.
If you'd like to purchase the book, Dr. Humor, he finds, helps us deal with difficult subjects, creates social bonds, and affirms positive values. Carter is Adjunct Professor, Social Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and Professor Emeritus, Comparative Literature and Humanities, Eckerd College, St. Play as a form of complementary care is increasingly considered to support sick children with their hospital experience. Finally, the aim of the theoretical framework, in its synthesizing form, was to promote further psychological understanding of the area of humor that exists between fantasy and reality-an intermediate or transitional area that the hospital clowns created together with the children. Based on these findings, we derive four lenses reframing, ownership, privilege, body through which researchers can examine these types of play experiences. It is also argued that the emerging joke representation model is neutral to the process of joke production.